First, prepare the yeast by mixing the yeast with warm water and 1 teasooon sugar in a large bowl or the bowl of a stand mixer and whisk until smooth. Let yeast stand until it puffs up, about 10 minutes.
Whisk in the 1 egg and 3 egg yolks, oil and remaining sugar and honey (pro move- measure oil before the honey using the same mixing cup and the honey wull slip right out!) into yeast mixture until incorporated. Then about half of the the flour and then the salt and mix into a ball with a wooden spoon or dough hook. Knead until smooth, about 7-10 minutes, adding more flour as needed (pun intended). You may not need all the flour. Or you may need a little more. You want your dough to be soft and tacky. Don't add too much flour. It will also get less sticky as it rises as the gluten activates.
Place the dough in a warm, cleaned bowl and cover with a towel. Let the dough ferment until it has doubled in size, about two hours.
Line a baking sheet with parchment paper and braid as designed.
Cover and let rise another 45 minutes or so until it's light and fuffy looking (exact proofing timing for challah will depend on environmental conditions.) Meanwhile, pre-heat the oven to 350 degrees F.
Whisk the last egg yolk with 1/2 tablespoon of water and brush generously all over the challah (I do two coats, you can top with sesame seeds or sprinkles or whatever!) and bake for 35 minutes or until golden brown. Tent the challah with foil if it starts to brown too much on the top.