Mix together the yeast, 2 tablespoons of the sugar, and the water to make a slurry.
Sift the flour and mix in with the other 2 tablespoons sugar, salt, cinnamon, vanilla egg yolks, and the yeast slurry.
Knead the dough until it forms a ball. Then add the butter and knead to incorporate the butter. Cover and let rise in a warm place.
Roll out the dough to 1/8 inch thick.
Cut out the dough into rounds with a champagne glass, or any round object 1/2 to 2 inches across. Mix the chocolate almond butter with the 1/4 cup powdered sugar, 2 tablespoons butter and a drop of vanilla. Take a dollop of jelly or the almond butter mixture and drop it on half the rounds. Top with the other halves and secure the edges and seal with egg whites.
Let rise for about 30 minutes.
Heat 2 inches of oil to about 375 degrees in a dutch over or deep fryer. Drop the doughnuts into the hot oil and turn to brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels and then roll the doughnuts in powdered sugar.